Comparative Budget Summary for Switchgrass and Hay (Per Acre) *Parentheses indicate a negative number, i.e. There is no revenue in the first year. Rountree produced an average yield of 9,300 pounds per acre; followed by Pawnee with yield of 9,100 pounds per acre, and Champ yield at 8,400 pounds per acre. In producing estimates of the Carbon Sequestration Cycle, researchers at Iowa State University determined that one pound of switchgrass contains 7,500 BTUs of energy. ANTARES Group, Inc., Andover, Maryland, is a consultant to the Chariton Valley Biomass Project. %%EOF Switchgrass, as noted above, can provide forage for one AU for 90 days from 0.45 acre (2.2 AU per acre). However, the lack of established markets and much of the current acreage being locked into federal set-aside programs are serious impediments to resource development. Combination of tall fescue and bermudagrass – gained 1.6 pounds per day with total beef yield of 513 pounds per acre. Establishing the actual price of a ton of harvested salable switchgrass is difficult. These recommendations are for long-term reasonable yields of switchgrass for biomass, with switchgrass harvested after a kill ing frost over a period of 10 years. However, there are lignin and ash issues with some combustion systems. On approximately 40 acres of land, project partners have planted alternate rows of fast-growing cottonwood trees and herbaceous crops such as switchgrass, forage sorghum and rye to enhance yields. Switchgrass shows great tolerance to heat, drought and nitrogen stress. In a two-year grazing trial near Mead, ‘Scout’ indiangrass had an average daily gain of 2.0 lb/head/day, produced 383 pounds of beef gain per acre, and provided as many as 85 grazing days when stocked continuously with three steers per acre. In addition, CV-RC&D worked with Alliant Energy to conduct a series of large-scale co-fire tests with switchgrass and coal at the Ottumwa Generating Station. In comparison, the total production costs in 2001 were $264.58 per acre. In Oklahoma, the harvest season may begin in July and extend through March. A co-op representative says the test gave East Kentucky Power valuable information about how burning switchgrass affects the plant’s fuel-delivery systems, boiler operations and emissions. However, if it replaces the use of nonrenewable fossil fuel, that essentially only adds carbon to the atmosphere. Farmers need to know that there’s going to be a market for switchgrass before they start devoting a lot of time and energy to producing it. Assuming a farm price of $120 per tonne (USD $108.27 per ton), switchgrass pellets provide the same cost for heating as oil at CND $0.25 per liter (USD $0.76 per gallon; where 1 liter = 0.264 U.S. gallons and 3.785 liters = 1 U.S. gallon). Warm-season grasses are best established during April and May. These advantages didn’t result in greater switchgrass dry matter (DM) yield, probably due to adequate stands (>1–2 plants per ft 2) that were achieved by all fungicide–insecticide seed treatments including UTC. The switchgrass is frost-seeded with a 25 percent probability of needing to reseed the stand; The land charge assumed is $80 per acre; Switchgrass yield is 4 tons per acre; The switchgrass stand is assumed to last 11 years; The reseed is assumed to last 10 years Producing switchgrass pellets for use in decentralized home heating systems is well developed, and pellet stoves are briskly selling to individual homeowners as supplemental heating sources. Using the germinable seed per square foot as a basis has a sizeable effect on seeding rate (7.1 vs 3.9 in the second table). Reseeding adds a third cost component. Prior to December 1999, natural gas prices hovered between $1 and $3 per GJ since 1996. The results of CGRER’s research will be used to determine the costs or benefits of burning switchgrass in place of coal at Alliant Energy’s Ottumwa Generating Station. 0 Lowland varieties are also better adapted to the soils and conditions in this region. The nutrient content of this forage can be as high as 16-17 percent crude protein, if harvested correctly. switchgrass variety planted variety ecotype ecotype of the planted switchgrass variety replicate replicate nested within treatment area harvested ft2 area of plot harvested moisture at harvest percent crop percent moisture at harvest % dry matter yield tons acre An estimated ten percent increase in carrying capacity of existing grasslands was stated to increase agricultural revenues by over $500 million. Switchgrass does well on lower quality soils, unmanaged pastureland, and fallow fields. At an assumed farm-gate price of $55 per dry ton for a mature yield of 7 tons per acre, annual revenue would be $385 per acre per year. Based on these figures, as an extreme example, if Iowa’s 1.4 million USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) acres were planted entirely to switchgrass for energy-feedstock use, the energy produced would equal the electricity annually used by 800,000 residential users, the energy equivalent of three million tons of coal. The authors of this report state that if “excess cropland” were converted to non-food biomass production, an additional 40 million acres could be used for energy production, increasing farm incomes by over $5 billion per year (these highly optimistic numbers seem to be based on an established conversion industry and surrounding infrastructure). This means that the need for agricultural chemicals to grow switchgrass is low to nonexistent; however, fertilization may be necessary to maintain harvestable stands. A thick stand of Switchgrass makes excellent winter and early spring wildlife cover because of its ability to remain in an upright position when covered with snow or ice. The biomass-conversion ethanol bio-converters would run on steam and electricity produced by lignin combustion from that unused switchgrass co-product. �b``$���`� � E� Eleven bids were received and five were accepted. It was estimated that if established costs were pro-rated over nine production years, cost was reduced an additional $6/ton including land costs. (Delta Farm Press) Genera Energy, a for-profit limited liability company wholly owned by the University of Tennessee Research Foundation broke ground on the Biomass Innovation Park at Vonore, Tennessee, in July 2010. Southern also is conducting pilot-scale tests co-firing switchgrass and coal. It is a natural component of the tall grass prairie that covered most of the Great Plains, as well as the south and eastern United States. There is a two week window (June 15 – July 1) to harvest the first cutting of switchgrass. ISU’s gasification research is housed at the Iowa Energy Center’s Biomass Energy CONversion (BECON) facility in Nevada, Iowa. Although switchgrass yields less per acre, it does have some value as a forage grass. In this way, carbon dioxide is recycled by the use of switchgrass for energy production, making this process carbon-dioxide-neutral (or actually carbon-dioxide-negative if soil carbon sequestration is considered), compared to fossil fuel use that continually adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. A recent USDA-ARS Project report, Improved Plants and Production Practices for Grasslands and Biomass Crops in the Mid-Continental Area, summarizes recent research in many areas of switchgrass and other native- and non-grass biomass crops. Switchgrass utilization is an emerging market currently in the research and demonstration-project arena. Producers will likely need to be located within 30 to 50 miles of a cellulosic etha-nol plant. Parrish found yields varied greatly across the nation. (Genera Energy). Yields of 2-5 tons per acre can be expect- ed, depending on rainfall and soil type, as well as other environmental conditions. Based on several prior years energy cost data, the researchers compared switchgrass pellets to natural gas. This warm-season grass is an exceptional forage for pasture and hay for livestock. (Panicum virgatum) Alamo Switchgrass - The Ultimate Biomass Crop - has produced as much as 15 Tons/Acre. This placed the cost of switchgrass pellets at 50 percent of conventional fuels for rural consumers. Since crop production decisions often come down to which production system has the greatest economic benefit, increasing the harvestable yield per acre is a major benefit. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass; Switchgrass: A Living Solar Battery for the Prairies. Switchgrass receiving no N fertilizer yielded as much as switchgrass receiving 60 pounds of N per acre. The Kansas Electric Utilities project is a pilot-scale operation where the co-firing of sorghum, switchgrass and wood from fast-growing trees (maple, cottonwood) is being tested. Material will be baled at harvest. It is resistant to many pests and plant diseases, and it is capable of producing high yields with very low applications of fertilizer. Cultivation practices vary considerably among farmers and by the stage of production: establishment year versus production year. The lowland variety Kanlow had the highest crop yield but the lowest ethanol conversion efficiency, resulting in the lowest predicted ethanol yields per Switchgrass yield is 4 tons per acre; The switchgrass stand is assumed to last 11 years; The reseed is assumed to last 10 years; The interest rate used for prorating the establishment costs is 8 percent, while the operating interest rate is 9 percent; Operating costs are assumed to be borrowed for six months; The field is initially prepared by adding phosphorous and potassium. Development of any new market also presents other opportunities. In a competitive world market for crop-based ethanol, the future belongs to sugarcane and switchgrass. Switchgrass has many characteristics that make it a desirable cellulosic ethanol feedstock. Pelleting is estimated to cost about $60/tonne (USD $54.39/ton). The cultivation practices are presented in seven scenarios, each representing a possible production strategy that could be chosen, depending on the particular situation (land type, skills, machinery available). Switchgrass is a native, perennial, warm-season, sod-forming tall grass. They were also asked for a base bid in dollars per acre plus an incentive payment in dollars per dry ton of switchgrass produced, assuming an average yield of 5.5 tons per acre. Another use is as a hydrogen source in fuel cells that feature a chemical reaction to produce electricity quietly, cleanly and efficiently, or as a feedstock to produce ethanol. Chariton Valley RC&D’s demonstration project illustrates how a successful energy production project can spawn or influence associated research and demonstration projects. The recent release of 'Liberty' switchgrass has increased the field-scale yields to greater than 6 tons per acre. Their livestock were free roaming and would graze the new switchgrass growth in the spring before the new plants were tall enough to withstand defoliation. In 2009 a total of 1,901 acres located in nine East Tennessee counties were enrolled in the 2009 program to grow switchgrass for conversion to cellulosic ethanol. Two outstanding farms in this five-year study had total costs around $40 per ton. The end-market for cellulosic biomass for bioenergy is not a fully developed market. The co-op plans to continue studying the energy potential of switchgrass and could eventually bump up the percentage of switchgrass it uses to 3 to 10 percent. There is no revenue in the first year. Algae produces up to 200 times more oil per acre than soy. An economic model, "Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Biomass in Southern Iowa," was published by Iowa State University. Mature switchgrass hay will require both protein and energy supplementation to provide the same feeding value as other hay crops. switchgrass yields, which can be as high as 15 tons/ acre. It should be noted that, in most cases, biomass producers have not yet implemented all of the best management techniques that will likely improve yields. “When we harvest this grass in a day or so, I think we’ll get a yield of five tons per acre… The wood used in these facilities has included ground pallets and hurricane-damaged trees. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Of these, south central Iowa is home to the nation’s most visible switchgrass demonstration project, the Chariton Valley Biomass Project, coordinated by Chariton Valley Resource Conservation and Development (CV-RC&D), Inc. CV-RC&D is a rural development organization located in Centerville, Iowa, that coordinates the southern Iowa switchgrass initiative. It provides not only biomass, but also significant environmental and wildlife benefits as well. Market Trends With respect to energy production, switchgrass as a crop sequesters carbon, therefore reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide content. The authors concluded that switchgrass had the potential to produce greater ethanol yields per acre than corn when both the grain and corn stover were used for cellulosic-digestion processing. 1. Switchgrass biomass production may offer several environmental benefits. The seeds are shed in fall or winter and require winter dormancy before they germinate in the spring . USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, Logan, Utah & ILS, Inc, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. A USDA-ARS Project report states that over 35 million acres of land are currently removed from any type of production in the CRP. 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